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Do Plants Have Sexes?
Plant reproductive morphology - Wikipedia
Separation of male and female flowers on different individuals, called dioecy, has evolved independently many times in flowering plants from hermaphroditic ancestors. A long-standing theory predicts that specialized X and Y sex chromosomes can evolve in dioecious species when mutations occur in two tightly linked genes with antagonistic effects on male and female development. In this paper, Harkess et al. The combined activities of TOFF1 and TDF1 nicely explain how sex is genetically determined in the dioecious asparagus and gives new insights into plant sex chromosome evolution. Summary by Frej Tulin Plant Cell Plant Science Research Weekly. Highly expressed genes are preferentially co-opted for C4 photosynthesis.
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Plant reproductive morphology
Most dioecious plant species are believed to derive from hermaphrodite ancestors. The regulatory pathways that have been modified during evolution of the hermaphrodite ancestors and led to the emergence of dioecious species with separate sexes still remain unknown. Silene latifolia is a dioecious plant species harbouring XY sex chromosomes. To identify the molecular mechanisms involved in female organ suppression in male flowers of S. Our phylogenetic analyses suggest that we identified true orthologs for both types of genes.
A well-established hypothesis for the evolution of dioecy involves two genes linked at a sex-determining region SDR. Recently there has been increased interest in possible single gene sex determination. Work in Populus has finally provided direct experimental evidence for single gene sex determination in plants using CRISPR-Cas9 to knock out a single gene and convert individuals from female to male. The production of fully functional males from females by a simple single gene knockout is experimental evidence that an antagonistic male-determining factor does not exist in Populus. The occurrence of single gene sex determination with a default sex may be much commoner in plants than hitherto expected, especially when dioecy evolved via monoecy.
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